Ocean temperatures are at record levels, with major consequences

The world experienced catastrophic weather disasters in 2021, due to the catastrophic floods. mountains in Europe and the filling subways in China and in the US, heat waves and wildfires. Hurricane Rai killed more than 400 people in the Philippines; Hurricane Ida caused widespread flooding US $ 74 billion in damage in the US

Globally, it was the sixth warmest year on earth, according to a report by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Annual report of the global climate on Jan. 13, 2022. But below ground level, sea temperatures set a precedent for new temperatures in 2021.

As a weather scientist Kevin Trenberth he explains that while global warming is a daily occurrence, global warming is a good indicator of global warming.

The Conversation spoke with Trenberth, co-author of a study published on Jan. 11, 2022, by 23 researchers from 14 schools following the warming of the oceans of the earth.

Your latest research shows ocean temperatures are very high. What does this tell us about global warming?

The world’s oceans are warmer than ever, and their temperature has risen every ten years since the 1960’s.

As the oceans warm, their temperatures intensify in the climate, creating violent storms and hurricanes, and very heavy rain. That endangers human life, life and marine life.

Oceans take approx 93% of additional power is blocked by the amount of greenhouse gases from human activities, especially the burning of combustible fuels. Because water retains much more heat than the earth does and the amount of water involved is high, the surface of the oceans is the first sign of global warming. I explain this in more detail in my new book “Changes in Energy Effects Through Climate System. “

Our study provided the first ocean temperature assessment for 2021, and we could say that the heat was the result of human activity. Global warming is alive and well, unfortunately.

Global warming was extremely hot fifth or sixth very warm in 2021 (history depends on the data used), among other things, for the whole year La Nina climate, in which the cold temperatures in the Pacific Pacific affect the global climate system.

There is a natural variation in atmospheric temperature than ocean temperature due to this Boy / Girl and weather events. This biodiversity on the surface of the tropical sea creates a tropical climate, sometimes called “hot ocean waves,” that vary from year to year. That hot spot has it has a profound effect on aquatic life, from small plankton to fish, aquatic mammals and birds. Some tropical climates are responsible for much of the activity in the atmosphere, such as hurricanes.

Although high temperatures are both the cause and the reason for it, the main source of the phenomena that cause extreme temperatures is the warming of the oceans that promotes climate.

We found that the oceans were warming, with extreme heat in the Atlantic Ocean and south of the sea around Antarctica. That’s Antarctic Ice worry – heat in the Southern Ocean can they sink under the ice in Antarctica, thinning and dissolving large glaciers. Tropical seas are as well as rising sea levels.

How does oceanic temperature affect air temperature and humidity on land?

Global warming increases global warming and drying, as well as rising temperatures, increasing the risk of heat waves and wildfires. We have seen the results in 2021, especially in western North America, as well as between the hot waves inside Russia, Greece, Italy and Turkey.

The warm ocean also provides air streams of humidity in the highlands, increasing the risk of flooding, as the US West Coast has been experiencing.

In 2021 there were several devastating hurricanes, including hurricanes Ida in the US and Typhoon Rai in the Philippines. How do ocean temperatures affect such storms?

The tropical lakes provide extra moisture for the atmosphere. Excess moisture causes storms, in particular storm. The consequences could be catastrophic rainfall, as the US observed from Ida, as well as floods that occurred in many places last year.

The storm can also be very strong, larger and more lasting. Several major flood events occurred in Australia last year, as well as in New Zealand. Snow can also occur in winter as long as the temperature stays below the resulting temperature hot air retains more moisture.

If global warming were to be reduced, would the lake be cold?

In the oceans, hot water resides on the surface of very cold water. However, the oceans are warming from top to bottom, which is why the lake is so large. This prevents the mixing between layers that cause the ocean to warm up to very depths and absorb carbon dioxide and oxygen. As a result it affects all marine life.

We found that over 500 meters of sea level is it has been warm since 1980; depth of 500-1,000 meters has been hot since 1990; depth of 1,000-1,500 meters from 1998; and less than 1,500 meters since about 2005.

The slow penetration of low temperatures means that the oceans will continue to heat up, and seawater will continue to rise even after the greenhouse has stabilized.

The final component to pay attention to is the need to increase the scientific ability to monitor sea change. One way we do this is through Argo array – currently about 3,900 floats that also transmit heat and salt data from the surface to about 2,000 meters in depth, tested as it rises and descends, in sea basins around the world. Robotic, jumping and steering equipment need to be upgraded regularly and their monitoring is essential.

[Understand new developments in science, health and technology, each week. Subscribe to The Conversation’s science newsletter.]

Author: Kevin Trenberth – Renowned Specialist, NCAR; Affiliated Faculty, University of Auckland

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